Where we're heading: my thoughts
first most probably we'll hit +2°C in 2030. Large parts of Middle East and Mediterranean will become nigh uninhabitable around then, and at the very least will see their agricultural output crash, while at the same time oil and gas production will collapse in several of these countries. Water availability is already extremely concerning in Jordan, Algeria, Iran, etc.
Therefore there will be very large wars (see Syria) everywhere, but with hundreds million of people concerned. There will be mass migration of unprecedented scale; tens and tens of millions of refugees will run towards Europe whatever it takes.
Of course European populations won't accept this situation, so most probable outcome is the rise of fascistic, militarised and racist societies all across Europe (it's already well under way).
In the meanwhile absolutely nothing effective will be done for climate, peace and democracy. Effective things: cut out drastically our hydrocarbons imports whatever it takes (it probably takes lots of nukes, BTW, if we want to be realistic). Some things are pretty simple, for instance get rid of oil and gas in housing and heating; that requires MUCH LESS money than the money that have been thrown away into windmills, and would save Europe globally tens of billions ANNUALLY so it would pay itself back in a few years. Of course, that requires HEAVY LONG-TERM GOVERNMENT PLANNING which is absolutely against EU delirious dogmas about "free markets" and other neoliberal ideological nonsense.
This shit should have been done in the past 20 years, it could have been, very easily. Now, it's too late. Of course late is better than never, but we're hosed: heavily dependent upon the Russians, and largely investing in shit that should be decommissioned RIGHT NOW.
Reduced energy availability in Europe (already happening, have been going on for years now) will mean lower economic output. So Europe as a whole will be getting poorer and poorer, while becoming more violent and more depending on other hostile powers. I'm pretty sure we'll see large emigration from Europe towards China and the US.
Of course the only way out would be a concerted, clear, explicit, explained to the public degrowth policy. But this flies right in the face of everything that makes the world going nowadays; people imagine the end of the world more easily than the end of capitalism.
Regarding capitalism, its time is getting to an end. Remember Kropotkin: in rich, abundant environment (tropical islands, etc) competition drives evolution. There are many different species occupying many different niches. In poor, difficult environment (Siberian steppe, deserts etc) cooperation is much more important; there are only a few different species that occupy that space and tend to be less competitive than cooperative.
Capitalism was the competitive way of managing human societies as long as we were in an ever-expanding world of ever-expanding markets (started right about 1492). As it has soared for 500 years, most people naively believe that it can go on forever. But we've reached the end of always-increasing energy and resource availability and are entering in a world of increasing scarcity. In this world, capitalism and competition are poisonous. Socialism and cooperation are the only way to go. If we don't switch rapidly enough, we humans will be wiped out of this planet, simple as that.